Comparative legal studies in retrospective1 Comparative legal studies are academic exercises to examine the laws of two or more countries or to compare two or more legal systems, in order to identify similarities and differences between them. These studies basically look into national laws. Since there are so many different nation states in the world today, even a simple comparison of the differences among them would be an extremely difficult work. Therefore, the mainstream approach to contemporary comparative legal studies seeks to identify common characteristics of different national laws, group them together along the line of these common characteristics, and then make comparisons among these legal groupings. Most research groups states into common law or civil law systems. ”Civil law” here does not refer to laws regarding civil matters, but refers to the so-called Roman law. Roman law was adopted by most countries in the  continental Europe. Therefore, traditional way of approaching comparative legal studies usually started with comparisons between the common law system and the civil or the continental law system. This simple grouping does not always capture the whole picture


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